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Significant Pipeline Incidents By Cause

This report is a sub-report of the PHMSA Significant Pipeline Incidents report. As such, it represents Significant Incidents (A) only over the time period and pipeline system specified.

The data source for this table is the PHMSA Flagged Incident File. (1)

More Pipeline Incidents Reports are available.

National All Pipeline Systems: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number (C) % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 34 10.4% 0 3 $9,759,513 4.2%
INTERNAL CORROSION 20 6.1% 0 0 $3,710,526 1.6%
Sub Total 54 16.5% 0 3 $13,470,039 5.8%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 8 2.4% 0 5 $1,186,428 0.5%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 66 20.2% 8 56 $55,809,103 24.2%
UNSPECIFIED EXCAVATION DAMAGE 1 0.3% 0 0 $8,758 0.0%
Sub Total 75 23.0% 8 61 $57,004,289 24.8%
INCORRECT OPERATION
UNSPECIFIED INCORRECT OPERATION 19 5.8% 0 10 $5,727,271 2.4%
Sub Total 19 5.8% 0 10 $5,727,271 2.4%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED PIPE BODY OR SEAM 10 3.0% 0 0 $3,117,878 1.3%
UNSPECIFIED WELD 13 3.9% 0 0 $6,070,579 2.6%
MALFUNCTION OF CONTROL/RELIEF EQUIPMENT 20 6.1% 0 1 $1,641,301 0.7%
UNSPECIFIED MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE 8 2.4% 0 9 $424,251 0.1%
Sub Total 51 15.6% 0 10 $11,254,012 4.9%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 15 4.6% 1 (F) 5 $28,294,456 12.3%
HEAVY RAINS/FLOODS 4 1.2% 0 (F) 0 $22,649,461 9.8%
TEMPERATURE 16 4.9% 2 (F) 9 $2,471,969 1.0%
UNSPECIFIED NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE 3 0.9% 0 (F) 0 $2,444,965 1.0%
Sub Total 38 11.6% 3 14 $55,860,853 24.3%
OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE
FISHING OR MARITIME ACTIVITY 1 0.3% 0 0 $364,920 0.1%
UNSPECIFIED OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE 1 0.3% 0 0 $131,371 0.0%
Sub Total 2 0.6% 0 0 $496,291 0.2%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 87 26.6% 11 22 $86,051,385 37.4%
Sub Total 87 26.6% 11 22 $86,051,385 37.4%
Totals 326 100.0% 22 120 $229,864,143 100.0%
National, All Pipeline Systems, 1994
National Hazardous Liquid: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 23 12.9% 0 0 $2,185,469 2.4%
INTERNAL CORROSION 7 3.9% 0 0 $360,541 0.4%
Sub Total 30 16.8% 0 0 $2,546,010 2.8%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 5 2.8% 0 0 $1,076,952 1.2%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 23 12.9% 0 1 $3,569,870 4.0%
UNSPECIFIED EXCAVATION DAMAGE 1 0.5% 0 0 $8,758 0.0%
Sub Total 29 16.2% 0 1 $4,655,581 5.2%
INCORRECT OPERATION
UNSPECIFIED INCORRECT OPERATION 9 5.0% 0 0 $5,617,795 6.3%
Sub Total 9 5.0% 0 0 $5,617,795 6.3%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED PIPE BODY OR SEAM 10 5.6% 0 0 $3,117,878 3.5%
UNSPECIFIED WELD 13 7.3% 0 0 $6,070,579 6.8%
MALFUNCTION OF CONTROL/RELIEF EQUIPMENT 20 11.2% 0 1 $1,641,301 1.8%
Sub Total 43 24.1% 0 1 $10,829,760 12.1%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 5 2.8% 0 (F) 1 $22,495,143 25.2%
HEAVY RAINS/FLOODS 4 2.2% 0 (F) 0 $22,649,461 25.4%
TEMPERATURE 1 0.5% 0 (F) 0 $6,568 0.0%
UNSPECIFIED NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE 2 1.1% 0 (F) 0 $1,496,173 1.6%
Sub Total 12 6.7% 0 1 $46,647,346 52.3%
OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE
FISHING OR MARITIME ACTIVITY 1 0.5% 0 0 $364,920 0.4%
Sub Total 1 0.5% 0 0 $364,920 0.4%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 54 30.3% 1 4 $18,481,232 20.7%
Sub Total 54 30.3% 1 4 $18,481,232 20.7%
Totals 178 100.0% 1 7 $89,142,646 100.0%
National, Hazardous Liquid, 1994
National Hazardous Liquid Onshore: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 22 12.3% 0 0 $2,141,678 2.4%
INTERNAL CORROSION 7 3.9% 0 0 $360,541 0.4%
Sub Total 29 16.2% 0 0 $2,502,220 2.8%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 5 2.8% 0 0 $1,076,952 1.2%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 23 12.9% 0 1 $3,569,870 4.0%
UNSPECIFIED EXCAVATION DAMAGE 1 0.5% 0 0 $8,758 0.0%
Sub Total 29 16.2% 0 1 $4,655,581 5.2%
INCORRECT OPERATION
UNSPECIFIED INCORRECT OPERATION 9 5.0% 0 0 $5,617,795 6.3%
Sub Total 9 5.0% 0 0 $5,617,795 6.3%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED PIPE BODY OR SEAM 10 5.6% 0 0 $3,117,878 3.5%
UNSPECIFIED WELD 13 7.3% 0 0 $6,070,579 6.8%
MALFUNCTION OF CONTROL/RELIEF EQUIPMENT 20 11.2% 0 1 $1,641,301 1.8%
Sub Total 43 24.1% 0 1 $10,829,760 12.1%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 5 2.8% 0 (F) 1 $22,495,143 25.2%
HEAVY RAINS/FLOODS 4 2.2% 0 (F) 0 $22,649,461 25.4%
TEMPERATURE 1 0.5% 0 (F) 0 $6,568 0.0%
UNSPECIFIED NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE 2 1.1% 0 (F) 0 $1,496,173 1.6%
Sub Total 12 6.7% 0 1 $46,647,346 52.3%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 54 30.3% 1 4 $18,481,232 20.7%
Sub Total 54 30.3% 1 4 $18,481,232 20.7%
Totals 176 98.8% 1 7 $88,733,936 99.5%
National, Hazardous Liquid Onshore, 1994
National Hazardous Liquid Offshore: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 1 0.5% 0 0 $43,790 0.0%
Sub Total 1 0.5% 0 0 $43,790 0.0%
OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE
FISHING OR MARITIME ACTIVITY 1 0.5% 0 0 $364,920 0.4%
Sub Total 1 0.5% 0 0 $364,920 0.4%
Totals 2 1.1% 0 0 $408,710 0.4%
National, Hazardous Liquid Offshore, 1994
National Gas Transmission: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 7 15.5% 0 1 $2,757,096 4.3%
INTERNAL CORROSION 9 20.0% 0 0 $2,226,013 3.5%
Sub Total 16 35.5% 0 1 $4,983,110 7.9%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 2 4.4% 0 2 $109,476 0.1%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 10 22.2% 0 13 $40,350,260 64.2%
Sub Total 12 26.6% 0 15 $40,459,736 64.4%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE 4 8.8% 0 2 $395,058 0.6%
Sub Total 4 8.8% 0 2 $395,058 0.6%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 3 6.6% 0 1 $4,619,890 7.3%
UNSPECIFIED NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE 1 2.2% 0 0 $948,792 1.5%
Sub Total 4 8.8% 0 1 $5,568,682 8.8%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 9 20.0% 0 3 $11,379,732 18.1%
Sub Total 9 20.0% 0 3 $11,379,732 18.1%
Totals 45 100.0% 0 22 $62,786,321 100.0%
National, Gas Transmission, 1994
National Gas Transmission Onshore: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 7 15.5% 0 1 $2,757,096 4.3%
INTERNAL CORROSION 3 6.6% 0 0 $956,091 1.5%
Sub Total 10 22.2% 0 1 $3,713,187 5.9%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 2 4.4% 0 2 $109,476 0.1%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 5 11.1% 0 6 $38,686,224 61.6%
Sub Total 7 15.5% 0 8 $38,795,700 61.7%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE 4 8.8% 0 2 $395,058 0.6%
Sub Total 4 8.8% 0 2 $395,058 0.6%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 3 6.6% 0 1 $4,619,890 7.3%
UNSPECIFIED NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE 1 2.2% 0 0 $948,792 1.5%
Sub Total 4 8.8% 0 1 $5,568,682 8.8%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 9 20.0% 0 3 $11,379,732 18.1%
Sub Total 9 20.0% 0 3 $11,379,732 18.1%
Totals 34 75.5% 0 15 $59,852,362 95.3%
National, Gas Transmission Onshore, 1994
National Gas Transmission Offshore: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
INTERNAL CORROSION 6 13.3% 0 0 $1,269,922 2.0%
Sub Total 6 13.3% 0 0 $1,269,922 2.0%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 5 11.1% 0 7 $1,664,036 2.6%
Sub Total 5 11.1% 0 7 $1,664,036 2.6%
Totals 11 24.4% 0 7 $2,933,958 4.6%
National, Gas Transmission Offshore, 1994
National Gas Gathering: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
INTERNAL CORROSION 4 80.0% 0 0 $1,123,971 64.8%
Sub Total 4 80.0% 0 0 $1,123,971 64.8%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 1 20.0% 0 0 $610,110 35.1%
Sub Total 1 20.0% 0 0 $610,110 35.1%
Totals 5 100.0% 0 0 $1,734,082 100.0%
National, Gas Gathering, 1994
National Gas Distribution: Significant Incident Details: 1994
Reported Cause of Incident (B) Number (C) % Fatalities Injuries Property Damage (D) (E) % of Property Damage
CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION 4 4.0% 0 2 $4,816,947 6.3%
Sub Total 4 4.0% 0 2 $4,816,947 6.3%
EXCAVATION DAMAGE
OPERATOR/CONTRACTOR EXCAVATION DAMAGE 1 1.0% 0 3 $0 0.0%
THIRD PARTY EXCAVATION DAMAGE 32 32.6% 8 42 $11,278,861 14.8%
Sub Total 33 33.6% 8 45 $11,278,861 14.8%
INCORRECT OPERATION
UNSPECIFIED INCORRECT OPERATION 10 10.2% 0 10 $109,476 0.1%
Sub Total 10 10.2% 0 10 $109,476 0.1%
MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE
UNSPECIFIED MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE 4 4.0% 0 7 $29,193 0.0%
Sub Total 4 4.0% 0 7 $29,193 0.0%
NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE
EARTH MOVEMENT 7 7.1% 1 3 $1,179,422 1.5%
TEMPERATURE 15 15.3% 2 9 $2,465,401 3.2%
Sub Total 22 22.4% 3 12 $3,644,823 4.7%
OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE
UNSPECIFIED OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGE 1 1.0% 0 0 $131,371 0.1%
Sub Total 1 1.0% 0 0 $131,371 0.1%
ALL OTHER CAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS CAUSE 24 24.4% 10 15 $56,190,419 73.7%
Sub Total 24 24.4% 10 15 $56,190,419 73.7%
Totals 98 100.0% 21 91 $76,201,093 100.0%
National, Gas Distribution, 1994

Notes

  1. Significant Incidents are those incidents reported by pipeline operators when any of the following conditions are met: 1) Fatality or injury requiring in-patient hospitalization. 2) $50,000 or more in total costs, measured in 1984 dollars. 3) Highly volatile liquid releases of 5 barrels or more or other liquid releases of 50 barrels or more. 4) Liquid releases resulting in an unintentional fire or explosion. Serious incidents, a subset of Significant Incidents, are incidents which involve a fatality or injury requiring in-patient hospitalization.
  2. PHMSA has gathered increasingly targeted incident cause data over time. As such, the available reportable categories of cause (eg: Internal/External Corrosion vs Corrosion in general) have increased over time. This report spans time periods over which the reportable cause categories have changed. The cause categories in this report should be taken as general and not specific for years prior to 2002 for Liquid and Gas Transmission, and prior to 2004 for Gas Distribution.
  3. Gas Distribution incidents where fire/explosion was the primary cause of failure, such as a house fire that subsequently resulted in - but was not caused by - a distribution line failure are excluded from 2004 onward. This exclusion has not been applied in years prior to 2004 due to difficulty in identifying these types of events with the older report formats.
  4. The costs for incidents in 2013 and prior are presented in 2013 dollars. Cost of Gas lost is indexed via the Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas City Gate Prices. All other costs are adjusted via the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Government Printing Office inflation values.
  5. For years 2002 and later, property damage is estimated as the sum of all public and private costs reported in the 30-day incident report. For years prior to 2002, accident report forms did not include a breakdown of public and private costs so property damage for these years is the reported total property damage field in the report.
  6. Does not include 1,851 injuries that required medical treatment reported for the October, 1994 accidents that were caused by severe flooding near Houston, Texas.

Sources

  1. PHMSA Flagged Incidents File - Aug 4, 2014. Note: Incidents occurring up to 30 days prior the Incident File source date may not appear in these reports due to the 30-day reporting period allowed by PHMSA regulation.

See Pipeline Incidents Reports for more pipeline safety reports.

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